Smart Luminaire

© Fraunhofer IOF


Intelligent lighting fixtures through customized light distributions for lighting applications of the 21st century 


High material transparency, precision, and shape of printed optics


Differentiation and increased efficiency of production by using printing and laser techniques to manufacture refractive and diffractive optical elements using the example of a car headlamp

Results Smart Luminaire

In the Smart Luminaire demonstrator, the Fraunhofer Institutes are presenting macroscopic 3D optics produced with inkjet printing, whereby the polymers used (ORMOCER®) have optical properties similar to those of glass. The digital manufacturing technologies also enable the integration of additional functionalities, such as conductor paths, LEDs and photodetectors, directly into the optics.

Inkjet Printed, Optically Transparent Objects


Technology development for the production of transparent objects by inkjet printing

  • Material: ORMOCER® OC-D7 (printable by inkjet, low solvent content)
  • Achieved dimensional accuracy:
    • side angle 85° ± 1° (1s, min. 81°, max. 88°)
    • length variation ≈ +190 ± 140 μm
    • width variation ≈ +10 ± 100 μm
    • P-V ≈ 20 µm (top surface area)
    • roughness ≈ 54 nm (top surface area)


Transmission is over 93 %


Improved transmission by plasma etching of inkjet-printed polymer-based optical components

    ■ Transmission > 93 ... 95 % (improvement by 2 ... 3 % due to reduced reflection)

    ■ Additional broadband antireflection property


Integration of Reflection and Scattering Elements by Laser


Integration of functionality (reflection and scattering of LED light) through printing technologies in Inkjet printed polymer-based optical components

    ■ Inkjet printing and plasma sintering of Ag nanoparticle-based inks

    ■ Thickness of the printed Ag layer: 0.5 – 1 µm, typical reflectivity > 90 % (93 % at 532 nm); [reflectivity of bulk-silver = 95 %]


Integration of Luminescent Sources in Printed Transparent Objects


Integration of electronic components (LEDs) by hybrid assembly in inkjet-printed polymer-based optical components

  • Hybrid assembly: Aerosol-Jet technology (jetting of Ag nanoparticle-based inks, sinter temperature 125 ° C, ORMOCER® compatible) and pick and place technology
  • Integrated LEDs: 15 ... 80 mcd @ 10 mA, approx. 2 V, PV < 50 mW